If you often find yourself lying awake at night for hours after going to bed, or are simply having trouble staying asleep, then you may have sleep insomnia. In this article, we discuss the causes of insomnia, how to treat it and tips on helping you overcome other sleep problems.
What is sleep insomnia?
Sleep insomnia is a sleep disorder which is characterised by a person having difficulty falling or staying asleep. According to the Sleep Health Foundation, 1 in 3 people experience mild sleep insomnia.
Sleep insomnia symptoms can include:
- General tiredness
- Problems with concentration
- Waking up often during the night
- Having difficulty falling asleep
- Waking up too early
There are varying intensities of insomnia from occasional to chronic. Insomnia is chronic if it occurs 3 nights per week for at least a month; acute if it occurs 1–2 nights per week; and occasional if it occurs less than that.
The effects can be far-reaching. “Getting enough good-quality sleep is essential to staying healthy and aging well. A lack of sleep can have serious consequences such as a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and other health conditions,” says cardiologist, Dr. Morton Tavel.
The causes of sleep insomnia
Many people who suffer from insomnia are unaware of any one specific reason or cause for the condition. The following can be contributing factors:
- Stress, often considered by most sleep experts to be the number one cause of short-term sleeping difficulties
- Environmental factors (i.e. a cluttered room, noise, light, temperature)
- A mattress with insufficient support
- Pain, medications or diet
- Insufficient exercise
- Too much screen time
- Inconsistent sleep schedule
- Working too many hours
Sleep insomnia treatments
If you are diagnosed with acute insomnia, doctors may not prescribe any treatment except for practicing better sleep habits. On the other hand, they may prescribe sleeping pills. Dr. Tavel advises, “If you do take a prescription sleep medicine, work with your doctor to use it effectively and for as short a time as possible.”
For chronic insomnia, a doctor will often search for underlying conditions or health problems that are causing the problem. They may suggest behavioural therapy which can include reconditioning, sleep restriction therapy and relaxation exercises.
Tips to beat insomnia
How can you relieve your insomnia and get restful nights of sleep without medication? First, prepare to make some lifestyle changes. It will take time, consistency, and tracking. Once you have committed to the goal, here is what you can do.
Put yourself on a sleep schedule
A regular sleep schedule can help you to fall asleep and wake up more easily. Dr. Tavel recommends going to bed at the same time each night and waking up at the same time each morning.
It is important to try and keep on your schedule, even on the weekends, so you don’t set yourself back. An interesting study performed by Calm.com (a meditation app), found that Sunday nights were by far the most troublesome nights for sleeping. “The biggest reason is that people get off of their normal sleep routine over the weekend,” says Clinical Psychologist and Insomnia Specialist, Dr. Steve Orma.
So plan out a reasonable bedtime and wake time that gives you enough hours of sleep, and stick to it. If you wake up throughout the night and find yourself tossing and turning, Dr. Tavel recommends getting up for a while to read and relax before returning to bed.
Cut out food and drinks that disrupt sleep
There are certain food and drinks that can disrupt your sleep. The most prominent culprits are caffeine, alcohol, high sugar foods and spicy foods. It is best to avoid these within 6 hours of your bedtime.
It’s important to note that caffeine is not just found in coffee but in tea, chocolate, energy drinks, some energy bars and fizzy drinks. It stimulates the body which makes it harder to get to sleep. Alcohol, on the other hand, is a depressant so many people think a nightcap can help them get to sleep. However, in an interview with psychoanalyst and sleep expert Jonathon Alpert, he says “It may knock you out initially, but within a few hours, as the body starts to eliminate the alcohol, it will wake you or, at best, cause a restless sleep”.
As for sweet foods, they can trigger a blood sugar crash that causes you to wake up in the night, while spicy foods can cause acid reflux which makes it harder to get to sleep.
Another important note on food and drink is timing. Even if you aren’t eating foods or drinking beverages that are known to disrupt sleep, if you ingest them too close to bedtime they can still wake you up due to digestion processes and needing to use the restroom. To prevent this, stop eating and drinking about 2 hours before you go to bed.
Exercise can also help you sleep. Dr. Tavel explained that regular aerobic exercise helps you to fall asleep faster, wake less in the night and get more restorative deep sleep. You can choose from exercises like running, walking, swimming, cycling, spin classes, surfing, or anything that gets your heart rate up. It is advised that you perform your exercise in the morning or early afternoon as it can have a stimulating effect that wakes you up for hours immediately following the workout.
Find out if you have misalignments of the spine
Be mindful of how your body is positioned when you sleep. We spend a great deal of time in bed — about a third of our lives — so it is important that our body is properly aligned during that time. When it’s not, you may experience pain and difficulty getting comfortable which leads to tossing and turning throughout the night.
Dr. Pamela Abramson-Levine says, “If you do have misalignments, getting adjusted to correct those misalignments can help relieve insomnia by bringing the nervous system into a more balanced state.”
You will also want to consider the quality of your mattress to determine if it is providing you with the proper support. It’s not uncommon for people to sleep on a mattress past its expiration date or to have a low-quality mattress to begin with. This can have detrimental consequences on your body and sleep quality, so look for a mattress manufacturer with technology that focuses on orthopaedically correct support.
It’s helpful to implement some relaxing practices to unwind before bed. Here are some ideas:
- Natural remedies — Dr. Abramson recommends diffusing the essential oils lavender and chamomile, drinking chamomile tea or taking a chamomile extract.
- Relaxation techniques such as meditation, guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation.
- Writing — Alpert suggests having a journal to write down anything that is on your mind before bed. As a result, you can relieve chronic worry that keeps many people awake at night.
- Wind down activities — Dr. Darley recommends reading a paper book, stretching, doing yoga or listening to an audiobook.
Find what relaxation techniques work best for you and make them part of your nightly routine.
How to create a sleep-friendly zone
You’ll also want to ensure your environment is not causing any sleep disturbances. Here are some tips for a sleep-friendly room.
- Turn your alarm clock away from you. Alpert advises that checking the clock throughout the night can lead to more anxiety.
- Make sure your bed is the right size and firmness
- Ensure the temperature isn’t too warm or too cold
- Make it quiet — Dr. Tavel says a noisemaker that emits a steady background noise can be helpful as well as earplugs.
- Make it very dark. Blackout shades can help with this as well as a sleeping mask.
- Keep the bed a place of relaxation. “You want your bed to have a strong association with sleep, not with wakeful activities,” says Dr. Darley. “Remove the television, telephone, and office equipment from the bedroom. This reinforces the idea that this room is meant for sleeping,” says Dr. Tavel.
- A clean room can prevent a histamine reaction to dust or dust mites. Furthermore, it will be more relaxing as you won’t be thinking about how you need to clean your room.
Beat insomnia and get a good night’s sleep
It can be extremely frustrating to struggle with insomnia night after night. However, by implementing these tips to induce and promote sleep, you can help yourself to get more rest. A large part of beating insomnia, in many cases, is developing better habits that make sleep more of a priority. The truth is, without proper sleep, we can’t give our best during the day. It’s worth the investment to commit to a few changes that will pay dividends with good health and energy.